*The Empathy Training Project materials, services, and site content are based on empirical research. Below is a list of our references, which we update as we continually investigate ways to improve our programming. 



Aber, J. L., Brown, J., & Jones, S. M. (1999). Resolving conflict creatively: Year 1 impact on teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior and child academic achievement. New York, NY: Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty.

Adalbjarnardottir, S. (1993). Promoting children's social growth in the schools: An intervention study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 461-484.

Allen, G. J., Chinsky, J. M., Larcen, S. W., Lochman, J. E., & Selinger, H. V. (1976). Community psychology and the schools: A behaviorally-oriented multilevel preventive approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Allred, C. G. (1984). The development and evaluation of positive action: A systematic elementary school self- concept enhancement curriculum, 1977-1983. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (11), 3244A. (UMI No. 8427771)

Aos, S., Lieb, R., Mayfield, J., Miller, M., & Pennucci, A. (2004). Benefits and costs of prevention and early intervention programs for youth. Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

Aronson, J. (Ed.). (2002). Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education. New York: Academic Press.

Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Reyes, M. R., & Salovey, P. (2012). Enhancing academic performance and social and emotional competence with the RULER Feeling Words Curriculum. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 218-224.

Brock, L. L., Nishida, K. K., Chiong, C., Grimm, K. J., & Rimm-Kaurman, S. E. (2008). Children’s perceptions of the social environment and social and academic performance: A longitudinal analysis of the responsive classroom approach. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 129-149.

Coleman, J. K. (2000). A controlled evaluation of the effects of Classroom Coping Skills training on children’s aggressive and externalizing behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (07), 3836B. (UMI No. 9978898)

Cowen, E. L., Zax, M., Izzo, L. D., & Trost, M. A. (1966). Prevention of emotional disorders in the school setting: A further investigation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30,381-387.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D. & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1): 405–432.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Bustamante, D., & Mathy, R. (1987). Physiological indices of empathy. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.),Empathy and its development (pp. 380–385). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Elias, M. J., Gara, M. A., Schuyler, T. F., Branden-Muller, L. R., & Sayette, M. A. (1991). The promotion of social competence: Longitudinal study of a preventive school-based program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61(3), 409-417.

Elias, M. J., Gara, M., Ubriaco, M., & Rothbaum, P. A. (1986). Impact of a preventive social problem solving intervention on children’s coping with middle-school stressors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(3), 259-275.

Frey, K. S., Nolen, S. B., Edstrom, L. V. S., & Hirschstein, M. K. (2005). Effects of a school-based social-emotional competence program: Linking children’s goals, attributions, and behavior. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 171-200.

Grossman, D. C., Neckerman, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., Liu, P., Asher, K. N., Beland, K., & Rivara, F. P. (1997). Effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 277, 1605-1611.

Hoffman, M. L. (1984). Interaction of affect and cognition in empathy. In C. E. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. B. Zajonc (Eds.), Emotions, cognitions, and behavior (pp. 103–131). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Holsen, I., Iversen, A. C., & Smith, B. H. (2009).Universal social competence promotion programme in school: does it work for children with low socio-economic background? Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2, 51-60.

Institute for Education Sciences. (2008b). What Works Clearinghouse procedures and standards workbook, Version 2.0, December, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2009 from http/ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/references/ idocViewer/Doc.aspx?docid=198tocid=1

Institute of Medicine. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 796-824.

Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79, 491-525.

Kaufman, S. E., & Chiu, Y. I. (2007). Promoting social and academic competence in the classroom: An intervention study examining the contribution of the responsive Classroom approach. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 397-413.

Kaufman, S. E., fan, X., Chiu, Y. I., & You, W. (2007). The contribution of the responsive classroom approach on children’s academic achievement: Results of a three-year longitudinal study. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 401-421.

Kaufman, S. E., & Sawyer, B. E. (2004). Primary grade teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes toward teaching, and discipline and teaching practice priorities in relation to the “Responsive Classroom” approach. The Elementary School Journal, 104, 321-341.

Kiger, D. (2000). The tribes process TLC: A preliminary evaluation of classroom implementation & impact on student achievement. Education, 120, 586-592.

Lewis, T. J., Powers, L. J., Kelk, M. J., & Newcomer, L. L., (2002). Reducing problem behaviors on the play- ground: An investigation of the application of school- wide positive behavior supports. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 181-190.

Lillenstein, J. A. (2001). Efficacy of a social skills training curriculum with early elementary students in four parochial schools. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (09), 2971A. (UMI No. 3025055)

Linares, L.O., Rosbruch, N., Stern, M.B., Edwards, M.E., Walker, G., Abikoff, H.B., et al. (2005). Developing cognitive-social-emotional competencies to enhance academic learning. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 405- 417.

Morrison, S. (1994). A description and a comparative evaluation of a social skills training program. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55 (05), 1226A. (UMI No. 9426011)

Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., Reyes, M. R., Elbertson, N. A., & Salovey, P. (in press). Improving the social and emotional climate of classrooms: A clustered randomized controlled trial testing the Ruler Approach. Prevention Science.

Rogers, C. and Freiberg, H. J. (1993) Freedom to Learn (3rd edn.), New York: Merrill. 

Rogers, C. R. (1961) On Becoming a Person. A therapist’s view of psychotherapy, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (1967 – London: Constable). 

Sawyer, L. B. E., & Kauffman, S. E. (2007). teacher collaboration in the context of the responsive Classroom approach. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13, 211-245.

Schick, A., & Cierpka, m. (2005). Faustlos: Evaluation of a curriculum to prevent violence in elementary schools. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 11, 157-165.

74 2013 CASEL GUIDE: Effective Social And Emotional Learning Programs preschool and Elementary School Edition (9/12)

Smith, J. D., Schneider, B. H., Smith, P. K., & Ananiadou, K. (2004). The effectiveness of whole-school antibullying programs: A synthesis of evaluation research. School Psychology Review, 33, 547-560.

Smith, M. K. (1997, 2004) ‘Carl Rogers and informal education’, The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education.

Smith, P. K., & Sharp, S. (Eds.) (1994). School bullying: Insights and perspectives. Routledge: London.

Smokowski, P. R., Fraser, M. W., Day, S. H., Galinsky, M. J., & Bacallao, M. L. (2004). School-based skills training to prevent aggressive behavior and peer rejection in childhood: Evaluating the Making Choices program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 25, 233-251.

Strayer, J. (1983, April). Emotional and cognitive components of children's empathy. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Detroit.

U. S. Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health. Washington DC: Department of Health and Human Services.

Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (2002). Can emotional intelligence be schooled? A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 37(4), 215-231.

Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg. H. J. (Eds.). (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? New York: Teachers College Press.